Sacroiliac (SI-joint) Pain


What is Sacroiliac pain?

Two large joints connect the pelvic bones to a big, triangular bone at the lower end of the vertebral spine called the sacrum – one on either side. These are referred to as sacroiliac (si-) joints. Si-joints are tight and strong, with a limited range of motion, and their role is to provide structural support and stability. Si-joints also function as shock absorbers of the pelvis and the lower back, dispersing the forces of the upper body and the impact from walking, running and jumping. Whenever an si-joint “gets stuck”, this may cause pain in the lower back and legs. This condition is also referred to as si-joint dysfunction.

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What is spondylolisthesis?

Spondylolisthesis is an instability issue of the spine when one vertebral body slips forward on top of another. This is a common cause of low back pain in dancers. Spondylolisthesis occurs after a defect or fracture of the bony connection between two vertebral bodies (the pars interarticularis). This is referred to as a spondylolysis. If a spondylolysis occurs on both sides of the vertebral body, it may begin to slip forward.

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Lateral Ankle Sprain


What is a lateral ankle sprain?

A lateral ankle sprain is an injury that causes a stretch or tear of one or more ligaments on the outer part of the ankle. Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect one bone to another and bind the joints together. In the ankle joint, ligaments provide stability by limiting side-to-side movement.

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Fifth Metatarsal Fracture


What is a fifth metatarsal fracture?

The fifth metatarsal is one of the long bones of the midfoot. It is positioned on the outside of the foot and connects to the little toe. A fracture of this bone is referred to as a fifth metatarsal fracture.

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Achilles Tendinopathy


What is Achilles Tendinopathy?

The Achilles tendon is a tendon that connects the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) to the heel bone (calcaneus). Achilles tendinopathy is an overuse issue that results in an inflammation of the Achilles tendon and its surrounding soft tissue.

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Stress Reactions of the Foot


What are stress reactions of the foot?

Stress reactions of the foot are overuse issues that arise from repetitive and excessive stress on the bone, with limited rest. They are classified in severity from grade I to IV, with a grade IV stress reaction being a stress fracture (an actual crack of a bone). The most common locations of stress reactions of the foot are the second and third metatarsal (long bone of the midfoot), the calcaneus (heelbone) and the navicular, a bone at the base of the midfoot.

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What is Sesamoiditis?

A sesamoid is a bone embedded in a tendon. Sesamoids are found around several joints of the body, but there are two big, pea-shaped sesamoids located in the ball of the foot, just beneath the big toe joint. Sesamoiditis is an overuse injury that takes the form of a stress reaction of the bone and its surrounding tendons and soft tissue. Stress reactions are classified from grade I to IV, with a grade IV stress reaction being a stress fracture (an actual crack of a bone).

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Shin Splints


What are shin splints?

Medial tibial stress syndrome, commonly called “shin splints”, is a stress reaction based on an abnormally high load on the shinbone (tibia). Stress reactions are classified from grade I to IV, with a grade IV stress reaction showing a crack of the bone (a stress fracture). Pain from shin splints is particularly felt in the middle to lower thirds of the inside (“medial side”) of the tibia.

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Anterior Ankle Impingement


What is anterior ankle impingement?

Anterior impingement is a common problem for dancers and is characterized by pain in the front of the ankle when performing a deep plié. It is a chronic condition involving soft tissue and bony changes at the ankle joint, where the shinbone (tibia) articulates with the anklebone (talus).

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Posterior Ankle Impingement


What is posterior ankle impingement?

Posterior ankle impingement is characterized by a pain in the back of your ankle when you point your foot, or relevé. This problem is very common for dancers and is therefore also known as “dancer’s heel”. It is a chronic condition involving soft tissue and bony changes in the back of the ankle joint, where the shinbone (tibia) articulates with the anklebone (talus). Side-view X-rays of the foot will reveal these bony abnormalities. They include an elongation of the posterior process of the talus, or a little bone on the back of the talus called os trigonum.

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Hallux Valgus


What is hallux valgus?

A bump on the side of the big toe joint is commonly known as a hallux valgus or bunion. The visible lump represents a complex deformity of the forefoot, with the big toe getting out of alignment and moving towards the second toe over time.

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Unspecific Foot Pain


What is unspecific foot pain?

Unspecific foot pain is a condition where you experience regular episodes of foot pain that are hard to explain. Clinical examination, X-rays or MRI scans may not have shown any evident problem inside or around your foot. You may have regular foot pain during or after training that gets better if you take a break from your training. However, typically the pain will instantly reoccur as you return to dancing.

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Snapping Hip


What is the snapping hip syndrome?

The snapping hip syndrome is a condition characterized by a snapping sensation or a popping sound in the hip with certain movements. As it is particularly common in dancers, it has become known as “dancer’s hip”.
The condition is generally regarded as harmless as long as it doesn’t cause pain. It is, however, almost always related to dysfunction of the pelvis (twists and blocks) and to relevant muscle dysfunction. It should therefore be taken seriously, as these conditions can lead to a whole range of other problems over time.

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Hip Impingement

hip-impingement-introWhat is hip impingement syndrome?

Hip impingement syndrome – also called femoroacetabuar impingement (FAI) – is a pain syndrome of the hip, frequently diagnosed in dancers. FAI is primarily a functional problem, although it can lead to structural lesions inside the hip – such as labrum or cartilage lesions – over time. FAI arises from impaired joint kinetics, based upon pelvic dysfunction and impaired muscle function (muscle dysfunction) of the hip, thigh and trunk musculature.

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Femoral Neck Stress Fracture


What is a stress fracture of the femoral neck?

Stress fractures of the femoral neck are overuse injuries that result in a crack in the upper part of the thighbone (femur). They are acute emergencies and demand instant medical care. Stress fractures of the femoral neck are not as common as other overuse issues, but they can occur in dancers under certain conditions.

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Hip Osteoarthritis


What is hip osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis of the hip is a degenerative joint disease that many dancers encounter in their late 40s, or older. It is a progressive disorder of the hip joint caused by gradual loss of the joint cartilage and deteriorating deformation. The main symptoms to look out for are pain, stiffness and progressive disability due to restricted joint movement.

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Patellar Tendinopathy


What is patellar tendinopathy

The quadriceps is connected to the shinbone by a strong tendon, with the kneecap (patella) embedded within it. The part above the kneecap is called the quadriceps tendon, while the lower part is the patella tendon.
Patellar tendinopathy is an overuse injury that takes the form of an inflammation of the patella tendon. This typically occurs on one of the tendon’s bony insertion sites: either on the tip of the patella or on the tibial tuberosity, a bony bump on the shinbone. Problems with the patella tendon can almost always be traced to abnormal function of the quadriceps.

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Bruised Knee


What is a bruised knee?

A knee contusion (bruised knee) is an injury affecting the soft tissues around your knee and also possibly the cartilage behind your kneecap.

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Meniscal Tear


What is a meniscal tear?

The two menisci are c-shaped structures inside the knee joint: the lateral meniscus on the outside of the knee, and the medial meniscus on the inside. The most important function of the menisci is to distribute the pressure from weight-bearing activities across a large surface area of the cartilage covered joint, to reduce the impact overall. The menisci move back and forth, allowing the thighbone (femur) to glide and rotate on the shinbone (tibia). A meniscal tear is a rupture of the meniscus. This is the most common injury of the knee joint but can be particularly serious for dancers.

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ITB Syndrome


What is iliotibial band syndrome

The iliotibial band (ITB) is a thick band of fascia on the outside of the thigh. It extends from the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserts just below the knee. This band is crucial to leg stabilization. An inflammation of the ITB on the side of the thigh, just above the knee joint, is referred to as iliotibial band syndrome. Although it is commonly referred to as “runner’s knee”, this is a frequent overuse problem for dancers.

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Collateral Ligament Sprain


What is a collateral ligament sprain?

The two collateral ligaments are located on the sides of the knee joint and connect the thighbone (femur) to the lower leg. The MCL (medial collateral ligament), on the inside of the knee, connects the femur with the tibia, and the LCL (lateral collateral ligament) connects the femur to the fibula. A collateral ligament sprain is an injury that causes these ligaments to stretch or tear. The MCL is closely connected to the medial meniscus, so an MCL injury can sometimes also affect this important structure inside the knee.

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Kneecap Subluxation


What is a Kneecap subluxation?

The kneecap (patella) slides on the thighbone (femur) in a bony channel called the trochlear groove. This guides the kneecap as the knee flexes and extends. Movement of the patella is highly influenced by the tension of the quadriceps. Instability of the patella, combined with muscle dysfunction of the quadriceps, can cause the patella to be pulled to the outside of the trochlear groove and to eventually slip over its edge. This is called a patellar subluxation.

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ACL Injury


What is an ACL injury?

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major ligaments in the center of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia) and is vital to the stability of the knee joint. The ACL protects the femur from sliding forward on the tibia and limits how far it can rotate. It also helps to prevent hyperextension of the knee.

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Baker´s Cyst


What is Baker’s cyst?

Baker’s cyst is a liquid-filled swelling that can cause a bulge and a feeling of tightness in the back of the knee. Baker’s cyst is related to chronic knee inflammation, which can have different underlying causes: from simple overuse problems to severe lesions of the cartilage or meniscus, and all kinds of systemic chronic inflammation.

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Osgood Schlatter


What is Osgood-Schlatter disease?

Osgood-Schlatter disease is an inflammation and painful enlargement of the tibial tuberosity – a bony bump, just below the knee joint, where the patella tendon connects to the shinbone. Osgood-Schlatter disease occurs most frequently between the ages of 9 and 13, and usually in a period of rapid growth. Boys have a much higher risk of developing Osgood-Schlatter disease than girls. In 25% of cases, the condition affects both knees.

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Prepatellar Bursitis


What is a prepatellar bursitis?

A prepatellar bursitis is an irritation or inflammation of a bursa on top of your kneecap.
A bursa is a sacklike cavity filled with fluid. It is usually found in areas subject to friction, for example in places in which a tendon passes over a bone or a bone glides under the skin.

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Knee Osteoarthritis


What is knee osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that is experienced by many dancers over the course of their lives. It is a progressive disorder of the knee joint, caused by a gradual loss of the joint cartilage and bony deformation. The main symptoms of knee OA are pain, swelling and progressive disability due to limited joint movement.

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Unspecific Knee Pain


What is unspecific knee pain?

Unspecific knee pain is a condition characterized by regular episodes of knee pain that are hard to explain. You might experience knee pain during or after training that eases if you take some time off. Typically, though, the pain will instantly return when you start dancing again. Clinical examination, X-rays or MRI scans may not identify any obvious problem, inside or around your knee.

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Shoulder Instability


What is shoulder instability?

Shoulder instability is a condition characterized by a dislocation of the shoulder joint, when the head of the humerus pops out of the glenoid (socket bone of the shoulder joint). There are different types of shoulder instability. An acute trauma, with the shoulder dislocating in an accident, is a very painful injury. Sometimes, the humeral head does not relocate by itself and gets stuck underneath the glenoid. This condition is referred to as an acute shoulder dislocation or luxation.

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Tennis Elbow


What is tennis elbow?

Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, is characterized by pain, soreness and tenderness of the elbow. Pain is typically felt around the lateral epicondyle – a bony bump on the outer side of the elbow where the extensor muscles of the forearm insert. But it’s not just tennis players that come up against this condition. Any activity that involves repetitive use of the extensor muscles of the forearm can cause acute or chronic tendonitis under certain circumstances. Tennis elbow symptoms are usually associated with muscle dysfunction that has its origin at the upper back and shoulder.

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